22 / 10 / 2014 11.45am
So you have just completed a section in the Culture Change tool and clicked to view the online resources. Now use the relevant quick link below to go to the resources for the section you were completing.
Discover a wide range of online resources that focus on the theory of culture change, as well as OD techniques you can use when working on culture. All tried, tested and recommended by our NHS OD community.
- Chapter 12 of this practitioner guide to OD gives plenty of helpful advice on supporting culture change, Cheung-Judge, M. Y., & Holbeche, L. (2011). Organization development: A practitioner's guide for OD and HR. London: Kogan Page.
- The role of the OD Practictioner Mee-Yan Cheung-Judge – Doing OD in the NHS volume 1
- Edgar Schein offers some helpful pointers, Schein, E. H. (1986). What you need to know about organizational culture. Training & Development Journal. Vol 40 (1), Jan 1986, pp30-33
- Thinking and acting optimistically, Seligman, M. E. (2011). Learned optimism: How to change your mind and your life. Random House LLC.
Some Pointers from NHS Practitioners
- Read A Safe Place to stay sharp – Doing OD in the NHS volume 1
- Use practices like mindfulness and keeping a reflective log or diary to increase personal self-awareness
- Take some psychometric tests to get a sense of personal strengths and preferences. Examples include The Myers & Briggs Foundation and Strengths Finder
- Regularly check what you are doing with the stated strategic priorities of your organisation and partners.
- Read material related to organisational culture change either from these resources or material you have found and make some reflective notes asking yourself ‘So what does this mean for how I am with my colleagues and in the work I do?’
- Write a description of how you doing things as an organisation. What do you notice particularly? Test it out with colleagues and develop the detail and richness of the picture in words. What are the main themes and how might you influence them in your daily work?
- What are the conversations you are a part of and how do they reflect organisational culture? Marshak, R. J., & Grant, D. (2008). Organizational discourse and new organization development practices. British Journal of Management, 19(s1), S7-S19.
- Do you take time to celebrate successes?
- Do you make good use of feedback from your peers? How is this influencing your practice in the area of culture change?
- Are you learning how to ask powerful questions which shift energy and focus? Vogt, E. E., Brown, J., & Isaacs, D. (2003). The art of powerful questions. Whole Systems Associates, Mill Valley.
- Do you practice re-framing and encourage others to do the same? Trede, F., & Higgs, J. (2003). Re‐framing the clinician's role in collaborative clinical decision making: re‐thinking practice knowledge and the notion of clinician–patient relationships. Learning in Health and Social Care, 2(2), pp66-73.
- Read the Team Toolkit
- Supporting evidence as to why it is worth developing your team approach to supporting change, Sniezek, J. A., & Henry, R. A. (1989). Accuracy and confidence in group judgment. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 43(1), pp1-28.
- The role of groups in culture formation and change, Schein, E. H. (1984). Coming to a new awareness of organizational culture. Sloan management review, 25(2), pp3-16.
- Thinking about sustainability of teams, Houghton, J. D., Neck, C. P., & Manz, C. C. (2003). We think we can, we think we can, we think we can: the impact of thinking patterns and self-efficacy on work team sustainability. Team Performance Management, 9(1/2), pp31-41.
- Thinking about roles in your team, Belbin, R. M. (2012). Management teams. London: Routledge.
Understanding how a minority of people can influence the majority to change their minds
- Asch, S. E. (1952). Group forces in the modification and distortion of judgments. Prentice Hall
- Moscovici, S., Lage, E., & Naffrechoux, M. (1969). Influence of a consistent minority on the responses of a majority in a color perception task. Sociometry,1974 ,37,4 529-540.
- Martin, R., & Hewstone, M. (2009) Minority influence and innovation: Antecedents, processes and consequences Psychology Press.
- De Dreu, C. K. W., & West, M. A. (2001). Minority dissent and team innovation: The importance of participation in decision making. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(6), 1191.
Do you meet as a team to explore team roles with regard to culture change efforts?
What goals are you setting for the work?
Locke, E. A. (1996). Motivation through conscious goal setting. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 5(2), 117-124.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current directions in psychological science, 15(5), 265-268.
Does your team use PDSA cycles to inform culture change work?
Have you identified change and OD champions who can support your work and be part of a team?:
- Have used considered using participatory action inquiry approaches to develop your individual and collective skills whilst impacting on culture?
- Have you had a conversation recently exploring how effective you are as a team and what you can do to build on your strengths?
- Is team coaching a way forward in your context?
- Hackman, J. R., & Wageman, R. (2005). A theory of team coaching. Academy of Management Review, 30(2), 269-287.
- Cox, E., Bachkirova, T., & Clutterbuck, D. A. (Eds.). (2014). The complete handbook of coaching. London: Sage.
Caldwell, R. (2001). Champions, adapters, consultants and synergists: the new change agents in HRM. Human Resource Management Journal, 11(3), 39-52.
Ginsberg, A., & Abrahamson, E. (1991). Champions of Change and Strategic Shifts: The Role of Internal and External Change Advocates*. Journal of Management Studies, 28(2), 173-190.
Are you learning from and with one another in a constructive way?:
Parker, P., Hall, D. T., & Kram, K. E. (2008). Peer coaching: A relational process for accelerating career learning. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 7(4), 487-503.
What are your team dynamics?
Donnellon, A. (1996). Team talk: The power of language in team dynamics. Harvard Business Press.
Are you ensuring that you contract with colleagues for change efforts? Always Be Contracting (ABC)!
Schein, E.H. (2009) Helping: How to offer, give, and receive help. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
A classic text linking values with culture types
Cameron, K. S., and R. E. Quinn(1999)Diagnosing and changing organizational culture, based on the competing values framework. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison Wesley.
Connecting culture change with innovation in organisational processes:
Khazanchi, Shalini, Marianne W. Lewis, and Kenneth K. Boyer. (2007) Innovation-supportive culture: The impact of organizational values on process innovation.Journal of Operations Management 25(4) 871-884.
The individual and their relationship to the organisation—what people do to personalise their workspaces is connected to organisational culture:
Wells, Meredith M., Luke Thelen, and Jennifer Ruark. (2007). Workspace Personalization and Organizational Culture: Does your workspace reflect you or your company? Environment and Behavior
Helpful perspectives on culture change
Meyerson, D., & Martin, J. (1987). Cultural Change: an integration of three different views. Journal of management studies, 24(6), 623-647.
Thinking about the role of gender in organisational change:
Ely, R. J., & Meyerson, D. E. (2000). Theories of gender in organizations: A new approach to organizational analysis and change. Research in organizational behavior, 22, 103-151.
Do you need to change organisational culture or climate?:
Schein, E. H. (1999). Sense and nonsense about culture and climate. Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Linking patient safety and organisational culture:
Hartmann, Christine W., et al. (2009) Relationship of hospital organizational culture to patient safety climate in the Veterans Health Administration. Medical Care Research and Review 66(3) 320-338.
Some Pointers from NHS practitioners
- McKinsey Five Frames
- Scholes, K., & Johnson, G. (Eds.). (2001). Exploring public sector strategy. Pearson Education.
- Organisational Culture Assessment Instrument
- Griffin, M. E., Alsop, M. M., Saville, M. M., & Smith, M. G. (Eds.). (2014). A Field Guide for Organisation Development: Taking Theory Into Practice. Gower Publishing, Ltd..
- The work of Michael West
- NHS Improving Quality resources
- NHS IQ White Paper
- Balance Scorecard Project: Doing OD in the NHS Volume 1
- Targeted support & Engagement : Case Study Blackpool – Doing OD in the NHS volume 1
- Patient Leader : Blog Mark Doughty – Doing OD in the NHS Volume 1
- Diagnostic tools – Doing OD in the NHS Volume 1
- Melcrum case studies
- Harvard Business Review
- Laura R. Welp & Christina M. Brown (2014) Self-compassion, empathy, and helping intentions,The Journal of Positive Psychology: 9:1, 54-65,
- Kotter, J. P. (2014). Accelerate: Building Strategic Agility for a Faster-Moving World. Harvard Business Review Press.
- The work of Marshall Ganz
- Gurdjian, P., Halbeisen, T., & Lane, K. (2014). Why leadership-development programs fail. McKinsey Quarterly.
- Thorpe, R., Gold, J., & Lawler, J. (2011). Locating distributed leadership. International Journal of Management Reviews, 13(3), 239-250.
- Gallardo-Gallardo, E., Dries, N., & González-Cruz, T. F. (2013). What is the meaning of ‘talent’in the world of work?. Human Resource Management Review, 23(4), 290-300.
Leading to Quality
Does the whole organisation have time and space to explore what culture is needed to improve care?
Do you understand how the measures you are using in your organisation are impacting on attitudes and behaviours?:
Behn, R. D. (2003). Why measure performance? Different purposes require different measures. Public administration review, 63(5), 586-606.
Are your culture related measures related to organisational strategy and outcomes?
Think about the metaphors you are using individually and collectively to talk about organisational culture. Can you introduce some new ones?
Tsoukas, H. (1991). The missing link: A transformational view of metaphors in organizational science. Academy of Management Review, 16(3), 566-585.
Smircich, L. (1983). Concepts of culture and organizational analysis. Administrative science quarterly, 339-358.
McCourt, W. (1997). Discussion note: using metaphors to understand and to change organizations: a critique of Gareth Morgan's approach. Organization Studies, 18(3), 511-522.
Do you have a sense of the circles of influence across the organisation?
Are you alert to opportunities to influence?
Howard, R. A., & Matheson, J. E. (2005). Influence diagrams. Decision Analysis, 2(3), 127-143.
Do you understand the strengths of the current organisational culture? Have you tried using Appreciative Inquiry to find out and develop them?
Lewis, S. Passmore, J. and Cantore, S. (2008) Appreciative inquiry for change management: using AI to facilitate organizational development. London: Kogan Page Ltd.
In your relationships do you pay attention to the potential to change the conversations?:
Shaw, P. (2002). Changing conversations in organizations: A complexity approach to change (Vol. 6). Psychology Press.
What are the stories people tell about the culture in the organisation? Are you capturing and sharing them?
Bartel, C. A., & Garud, R. (2009). The role of narratives in sustaining organizational innovation. Organization Science, 20(1), 107-117.
How do you link culture change work with the internal/external communications strategy?
Armenakis, A. A., Harris, S. G., & Mossholder, K. W. (1993). Creating readiness for organizational change. Human relations, 46(6), 681-703.
What do you do to share and celebrate good news that reinforces desired behaviours and attitudes?:
Elving, W. J. (2005). The role of communication in organisational change. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 10(2), 129-138.
Do people have conversations which ask wouldn't it be great if....? Can you stimulate an aspirational environment?
Cantore, S. and Hick, W. (2012) 'Dialogic OD in Practice :Conversational Approaches to Change in a UK Primary School '. OD Practitioner 45 (1), 5-10
Are people visiting other organisations to get a sense of how different cultures work?
Can you encourage/facilitate that to happen?
Is your organisation ready for some large scale interventions involving large numbers of staff (and perhaps patients/community members/stakeholders)?
Bunker, B. B., & Alban, B. T. (2006). The handbook of large group methods: Creating systemic change in organizations and communities. John Wiley & Sons.
Would a coaching culture make a difference to your organisation?
Clutterbuck, D., & Megginson, D. (2005). Making coaching work: Creating a coaching culture. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Do people mentor one another?
Megginson, D. (2006). Mentoring in action: A practical guide. Development and Learning in Organizations, 20(5).
Are individual and organisational values aligned? Have your tried mapping them?
Sullivan, W., Sullivan, R., & Buffton, B. (2001). Aligning individual and organisational values to support change. Journal of Change Management, 2(3), 247-254.
What measures might you choose to measure the value of culture change and Return on Investment?:
Waggoner, D. B., Neely, A. D., & P Kennerley, M. (1999). The forces that shape organisational performance measurement systems:: An interdisciplinary review. International journal of production economics, 60, 53-60.
Gordon, G. G., & DiTomaso, N. (1992). Predicting corporate performance from organizational culture*. Journal of management studies, 29(6), 783-798.
Rashid, M. Z. A., Sambasivan, M., & Johari, J. (2003). The influence of corporate culture and organisational commitment on performance. Journal of management development, 22(8), 708-728.
Phillips, J. J. (2003). Return on investment in training and performance improvement programs. Routledge.
Cheung-Judge, M. Y., & Holbeche, L. (2011). Organization development: A practitioner's guide for OD and HR. London: Kogan Page
What is the language and the wider conversation telling you about your organisational culture?
- Grant, D. (Ed.). (2004). The Sage handbook of organizational discourse. Sage.
- Grant, D., Michelson, G., Oswick, C., & Wailes, N. (2005). Guest editorial: discourse and organizational change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 18(1), 6-15.
- Boje, D. M., Oswick, C., & Ford, J. D. (2004). Language and organization: The doing of discourse. Academy of Management Review, 29(4), 571-577.
- Marshak, R.J. and Grant, D. (2008). 'Organizational discourse and new organization development practices. British Journal of Management 19 (1), S7-S19.
- Wheatley, M. (2009) Turning to one another: Simple conversations to restore hope to the future. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
An article that helps think through the relationship between organisation culture and other types of culture:
Dastmalchian, Ali, Sangho Lee, and Ignace Ng. (2000) The interplay between organizational and national cultures: a comparison of organizational practices in Canada and South Korea using the Competing Values Framework. International Journal of Human Resource Management 11(2) 388-412. Helping organisations to think through the relationship between what is going on in the wider environment and organisational change:
Suarez, F. F., & Oliva, R. (2005). Environmental change and organizational transformation. Industrial and Corporate Change, 14(6), 1017-1041.
Have you mapped the networks which your organisation is a part of?
Rowley, T. J. (1997). Moving beyond dyadic ties: A network theory of stakeholder influences. Academy of management Review, 22(4), 887-910.
Have your tried bringing the system into the room for a conversation?
Have you completed a stakeholder analysis?
Brugha, R., & Varvasovszky, Z. (2000). Stakeholder analysis: a review. Health policy and planning, 15(3), 239-246.
Is your organisation ready for some large scale interventions involving large numbers of staff (and perhaps patients/community members/stakeholders)?:
Bunker, B. B., & Alban, B. T. (2006). The handbook of large group methods: Creating systemic change in organizations and communities. John Wiley & Sons.
Have your tried using Future Search with your stakeholders to develop strategy?:
Weisbord, M. R., & Weisbord, M. (2000). Future search: An action guide to finding common ground in organizations and communities. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Have you tried using focus groups to enhance your understanding of stakeholder views?:
Krueger, R. A. (2009). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. Sage.
OD for CCG’s resource library:
NHS Leadership Academy Talent Resources & Healthcare Leadership Model
How do we change culture? Do OD library articles by Stefan Cantore & Nick Holly